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pH of Foods and Food Products - Acidity / Alkalinity or Fruit, Vegetables and Foods to Help in Home Canning and Food Preservation

pH of Foods and Food Products - Acidity / Alkalinity or Fruit, Vegetables and Foods to Help in Home Canning and Food Preservation

This table of the pH and/or acidity of common fruits, vegetables, grains, breads and common food products from the FDA / CFSAN is used to determine processing requirements (and the applicability of GMP regulations for regulatory purposes).

I've reproduced the list for its instructional value: I would advise that you do not assume that you can home can items simply because they have a low pH. Food safety in home canning is far more complex than that.  Properties that affect food stability and safety, like heat transfer properties and food chemistry interactions cannot be determined from pH. You may find this page about botulism and home canning to be both interesting and useful.

For those who are curious, the methods and conditions for determining the pH and acidity of foods are also summarized in 21 CFR 114.90. Methodology for pH is generally available from pH meter and electrode manufacturers.

Considerable variation exists between varieties, condition of growing and processing methods, etc. Data is presented for the edible portion of foods in their normal and natural state, unless otherwise designated. We solicit your input to this matter. This list will be updated when new information is available. Please contact the LACF Coordinator by phone at 301-436-2411 or email to [email protected].

pH chart for home canning

Item Approximate pH
Aloe vera 6.10
Aloe Juice 6.00 - 6.80
Apple, baked with sugar 3.20 - 3.55
Apple, eating 3.30 - 4.00

Apples

 
Delicious
3.90
Golden Delicious
3.60
Jonathan
3.33
McIntosh
3.34
Winesap
3.47
Apple Juice
3.35 - 4.00
Applesauce
3.10 - 3.60
Apricots 3.30 - 4.80
Canned
3.40 - 3.78
Dried, stewed
3.30 - 3.51
Nectar
3.78
Pureed,
3.42 - 3.83
Strained
3.72 - 3.95
Artichokes 5.50 - 6.00
Artichokes, canned, acidified 4.30 - 4.60
Artichokes, French, cooked 5.60 - 6.00
Artichokes, Jerusalem, cooked 5.93 - 6.00
Asparagus 6.00 - 6.70
Buds
6.70
Stalks
6.10
Asparagus, cooked 6.03 - 6.16
Asparagus, canned 5.00 - 6.00
Asparagus, frozen, cooked 6.35 - 6.48
Asparagus, green, canned 5.20 - 5.32
Asparagus, strained 4.80 - 5.09
Avocados 6.27 - 6.58
Baby corn 5.20 -
Baby Food Soup, unstrained 5.95 - 6.05
Bamboo Shoots + 5.10 - 6.20
Bamboo Shoots, preserved 3.50 - 4.60
Bananas 4.50 - 5.20
Bananas, red 4.58 - 4.75
Banana, yellow 5.00 - 5.29
Barley, cooked 5.19 - 5.32
Basil pesto 4.90
Beans 5.60 - 6.50
Black
5.78 - 6.02
Boston style
5.05 - 5.42
Kidney
5.40 - 6.00
Lima
6.50
Soy
6.00 - 6.60
String
5.60
Wax
5.30 - 5.70
Beans, pork & tomato sauce, canned 5.10 - 5.80
Beans, refried 5.90
Beans, vegetarian, tomato sauce, canned 5.32
Beets 5.30 - 6.60
Beets, cooked 5.23 - 6.50
Beets, canned, acidified 4.30 - 4.60
Beets, canned 4.90 - 5.80
Beets, chopped 5.32 - 5.56
Beets, strained 5.32 - 5.56
Blackberries, Washington 3.85 - 4.50
Blueberries, Maine 3.12 - 3.33
Blueberries, frozen 3.11 - 3.22
Bluefish, Boston, filet, broiled 6.09 - 6.50
Bran  
Flakes
5.45 - 5.67
All Bran
5.59 - 6.19
Bread, white 5.00 - 6.20
Bread, Boston, brown 6.53
Bread, Cracked wheat 5.43 - 5.50
Bread, pumpernickel 5.40 -
Bread, Rye 5.20 - 5.90
Bread, whole wheat 5.47 - 5.85
Breadfruit, cooked 5.33
Broccoli  
Broccoli, cooked 6.30 - 6.52
Broccoli, frozen, cooked 6.30 - 6.85
Broccoli, canned 5.20 - 6.00
Brussels sprout 6.00 - 6.30
Buttermilk 4.41 - 4.83
Cabbage 5.20 - 6.80
Green
5.50 - 6.75
Red
5.60 - 6.00
Savoy
6.30
White
6.20
Cactus 4.70
Cantaloupe 6.13 - 6.58
Capers 6.00
Carrots 5.88 - 6.40
Carrots, canned 5.18 - 5.22
Carrots, chopped 5.30 - 5.56
Carrots, cooked 5.58 - 6.03
Carrots, pureed 4.55 - 5.80
Carrots, strained 5.10 - 5.10
Cauliflower 5.60
Cauliflower, cooked 6.45 - 6.80
Celery 5.70 - 6.00
Celery, cooked 5.37 - 5.92
Celery Knob, cooked 5.71 - 5.85
Cereal, strained 6.44 - 6.45
Chayote (mirliton), cooked 6.00 - 6.30
Cheese, American, mild 4.98
Cheese, Camembert 7.44
Cheese, Cheddar 5.90
Cheese, Cottage 4.75 - 5.02
Cheese, Cream, Philadelphia 4.10 - 4.79
Cheese Dip 5.80
Cheese, Edem 5.40
Cheese, Old English 6.15
Cheese, Roquefort 5.10 - 5.98
Cheese, Parmesan 5.20 - 5.30
Cheese, Snippy 5.18 - 5.2l
Cheese, Stilton 5.70
Cheese, Swiss Gruyere 5.68 - 6.62
Cherries  
Cherries, California 4.01 - 4.54
Cherries, frozen 3.32 - 3.37
Cherries, black, canned 3.82 - 3.93
Cherries, Maraschino 3.47 - 3.52
Cherries, red, Water pack 3.25 - 3.82
Cherries, Royal Ann 3.80 - 3.83
Chicory 5.90 - 6.05
Chili Sauce, acidified 2.77 - 3.70
Chives 5.20 - 6.31
Coconut, fresh 5.50 - 7.80
Coconut milk 6.10 - 7.00
Coconut preserves 3.80 - 7.00
Congee 6.40
Corn 5.90 - 7.30
Corn, canned 5.90 - 6.50
Corn Flakes 4.90 - 5.38
Corn, frozen, cooked 7.33 - 7.68
Corn, Golden Bantam, cooked on cob 6.22 - 7.04
Crabapple Jelly, corn 2.93 - 3.02
Cranberry Juice, canned 2.30 - 2.52
Crabmeat, cooked 6.62 - 6.98
Cream, 20 per cent 6.50 - 6.68
Cream, 40 per cent 6.44 - 6.80
Cream of Asparagus 6.10
Cream of Coconut, canned 5.51 - 5.87
Cream of Potato soup 6.00
Cream of Wheat, cooked 6.06 - 6.16
Cucumbers 5.12 - 5.78
Cucumbers, Dill pickles 3.20 - 3.70
Cucumbers, pickled 4.20 - 4.60
Curry sauce 6.00
Curry Paste,acidified 4.60 - 4.80
Dates, canned 6.20 - 6.40
Dates, Dromedary 4.14 - 4.88
Eggplant 5.50 - 6.50
Eggs, new-laid, whole 6.58
White
7.96
Yolk
6.10
Escarolle 5.70 - 6.00
Enchalada sauce 4.40 - 4.70
Fennel (Anise) 5.48 - 5.88
Fennel, cooked 5.80 - 6.02
Figs, Calamyrna 5.05 - 5.98
Figs, canned 4.92 - 5.00
Four bean salad 5.60
Fruit cocktail 3.60 - 4.00
Garlic 5.80
Gelatin Dessert 2.60
Gelatin, plain jell 6.08
Gherkin  
Ginger 5.60 - 5.90
Ginseng , Korean drink 6.00 - 6.50
Gooseberries 2.80 - 3.10
Graham Crackers 7.10 - 7.92
Grapes, canned 3.50 - 4.50
Grapes, Concord 2.80 - 3.00
Grapes, Lady Finger 3.51 - 3.58
Grapes, Malaga 3.71 - 3.78
Grapes, Niagara 2.80 - 3.27
Grapes, Ribier 3.70 - 3.80
Grapes, Seedless 2.90 - 3.82
Grapes, Tokyo 3.50 - 3.84
Grapefruit 3.00 - 3.75
Grapefruit, canned 3.08 - 3.32
Grapefruit Juice, canned 2.90 - 3.25
Grass jelly 5.80 - 7.20
Greens, Mixed, chopped 5.05 - 5.22
Greens, Mixed, strained 5.22 - 5.30
Grenadine Syrup 2.31
Guava nectar 5.50
Guava, canned 3.37 - 4. 10
Guava Jelly 3.73
Hearts of Palm 5.70
Hominy, cooked 6.00 - 7.50
Honey 3.70 - 4.20
Honey Aloe 4.70
Horseradish, freshly ground 5.35
Huckleberries, cooked with sugar 3.38 - 3.43
Jackfruit 4.80 - 6.80
Jam, fruit 3.50 - 4.50
Jellies, fruit 3.00 - 3.50
Jujube 5.20 -
Junket type Dessert:  
Raspberry
6.27
Vanilla
6.49
Kale, cooked 6.36 - 6.80
Ketchup 3.89 - 3.92
Kumquat, Florida 3.64 - 4.25
Leeks 5.50 - 6.17
Leeks, cooked 5.49 - 6.10
Lemon Juice 2.00 - 2.60
Lentils, cooked 6.30 - 6.83
Lentil Soup 5.80
Lettuce 5.80 - 6.15
Lettuce, Boston 5.89 - 6.05
Lettuce, Iceberg 5.70 - 6.13
Lime Juice 2.00 - 2.35
Lime 2.00 - 2.80
Loganberries 2.70 - 3.50
Loquat (May be acidified to pH 3.8) 5.10
Lotus Root 6.90 -
Lychee 4.70 - 5.01
Macaroni, cooked 5.10 - 6.41
Mangoes, ripe 3.40 - 4.80
Mangoes, green 5.80 - 6.00
Mangostine ? 4.50 -5.00
Maple syrup 5.15
Maple syrup, light (Acidified) 4.60
Matzos 5.70
Mayhaw (a variety of strawberry) 3.27 - 3.86
Melba Toast 5.08 - 5.30
Melon, Casaba 5.78 - 6.00
Melons, Honey dew 6.00 - 6.67
Melons, Persian 5.90 - 6.38
Milk, cow 6.40 - 6.80
Milk, Acidophilus 4.09 - 4.25
Milk, condensed 6.33
Milk, evaporated 5.90 - 6.30
Milk, Goat's 6.48
Milk, peptonized 7.10
Milk, Sour, fine curd 4.70 - 5.65
Mint Jelly 3.01
Molasses 4.90 - 5.40
Muscadine (A variety of grape) 3.20 - 3.40
Mushrooms 6.00 - 6.70
Mushrooms, cooked 6.00 - 6.22
Mushroom Soup, Cream of, canned 5.95 - 6.40
Mustard 3.55 - 6.00
Nata De Coco 5.00
Nectarines 3.92 - 4.18
Noodles, boiled 6.08 - 6.50
Oatmeal, cooked 6.20 - 6.60
Okra, cooked 5.50 - 6.60
Olives, black 6.00 - 7.00
Olives, green, fermented 3.60 - 4.60
Olives, ripe 6.00 -7.50
Onions, pickled 3.70 - 4.60
Onions, red 5.30 - 5.80
Onion white 5.37 - 5.85
Onions, yellow 5.32 - 5.60
Oranges, Florida 3.69 - 4.34
Oranges, Florida "color added" 3.60 - 3.90
Orange Juice, California 3.30 - 4.19
Orange, Juice Florida 3.30 - 4.15
Orange, Marmalade 3.00 - 3.33
Oyster mushrooms 5.00 - 6.00
Palm, heart of 6.70
Papaya 5.20 - 6.00
Papaya Marmalade 3.53 - 4.00
Parsley 5.70 - 6.00
Parsnip 5.30 - 5.70
Parsnips, cooked 5.45 - 5.65
Pate 5.90
Peaches 3.30 - 4.05
Peaches, canned 3.70 - 4.20
Peaches, cooked with sugar 3.55 - 3.72
Peaches, frozen 3.28 - 3.35
Peanut Butter 6.28
Peanut Soup 7.5
Pears, Bartlett 3.50 - 4.60
Pears, canned 4.00 - 4.07
Pears, Sickle cooked w/sugar 4.04 - 4.21
Pear Nectar 4.03
Peas, canned 5.70 - 6.00
Peas, Chick, Garbanzo 6.48 - 6.80
Peas, cooked 6.22 - 6.88
Peas, dried (split green), cooked 6.45 - 6.80
Peas, dried (split yellow), cooked 6.43 - 6.62
Peas, frozen, cooked 6.40 - 6.70
Peas, pureed 4.90 - 5.85
Pea Soup, Cream of, Canned 5.70
Peas, strained 5.91 - 6.12
Peppers 4.65 - 5.45
Peppers, green 5.20 - 5.93
Persimmons 4.42 - 4.70
Pickles, fresh pack 5.10 - 5.40
Pimiento 4.40 - 4.90
Pimento, canned, acidified 4.40 - 4.60
Pineapple 3.20 - 4.00
Pineapple, canned 3.35 - 4.10
Pineapple Juice, canned 3.30 - 3.60
Plum Nectar 3.45
Plums, Blue 2.80 - 3.40
Plums, Damson 2.90 - 3.10
Plums, Frozen 3.22 - 3.42
Plums, Green Gage 3.60 - 4.30
Plums, Green Gage, canned 3.22 - 3.32
Plums, Red 3.60 - 4.30
Plums, spiced 3.64
Plums, Yellow 3.90 - 4.45
Pomegranate 2.93 - 3.20
Pork & Beans, rts. 5.70  
Potatoes 5.40 - 5.90

Mashed

5.10
Prunes, dried, stewed
3.63 - 3.92

Sweet

5.30 - 5.60
Tubers
5.70
Potato Soup 5.90
Prune Juice 3.95 - 3.97
Prune, pureed 3.60 - 4.30
Prune, strained 3.58 - 3.83
Puffed Rice 6.27 - 6.40
Puffed Wheat 5.26 - 5.77
Pumpkin 4.90 - 5.50
Quince, fresh, stewed 3.12 - 3.40
Quince Jelly 3.70
Radishes, red 5.85 - 6.05
Radishes, white 5.52 - 5.69
Raisins, seedless 3.80 - 4.10
Rambutan (Thailand) 4.90
Raspberries 3.22 - 3.95
Raspberries, frozen 3.18 - 3.26
Raspberries, New Jersey 3.50 - 3.82
Raspberry Jam 2.87 - 3.17
Razor Clams 6.20
Razor shell (sea asparagus) 6.00
Rattan, Thailand 5.20 -
Red Ginseng 5.50
Red Pepper Relish 3.10 - 3.62
Rhubarb, California, stewed 3.20 - 3.34
Rhubarb 3.10 - 3.40
Canned
3.40
Rice (all cooked)  
Brown
6.20 - 6.80
Krispies
5.40 - 5.73
White
6.00 - 6.70
Wild
6.00 - 6.50
Rolls, white 5.46 - 5.52
Romaine 5.78 - 6.06
Salsa
Satay sauce 5.00
Sauce, Enchilada 5.50 -
Sauerkraut 3.30 - 3.60
Scallion 6.20 -
Scotch Broth. 5.92
Shallots, cooked 5.30 - 5.70
Sherbet, raspberry 3.69
Sherry-wine 3.37
Shredded Ralston 5.32 - 5.60
Shredded Wheat 6.05 - 6.49
Soda Crackers 5.65 - 7.32
Soup
Broccoli Cheese Suop, condensed
5.60 -
Chicken Broth, rts.
5.80
Corn Soup, condensed
6.80
Cream of celery Soup, condensed
6.20 -
Cream of Mushroom, condensed
6.00 - 6.20
Cream style corn, condensed
5.70 - 5.80
Cream of Potato soup, condensed
5.80 -
Minestrone condensed
5.40
Tomato Rice Soup, condensed
5.50 -
Soy infant formula 6.60 - 7.00
Soy Sauce 4.40 - 5.40
Soy bean curd (tofu) 7.20
Soybean milk 7.00
Spaghetti, cooked 5.97 - 6.40
Spinach 5.50 - 6.80
Spinach, chopped 5.38 - 5.52
Spinach, cooked 6.60 - 7.18
Spinach, frozen, cooked 6.30 - 6.52
Spinach, pureed 5.50 - 6.22
Spinach, strained 5.63 - 5.79
Squash, acorn, cooked 5.18 - 6.49
Squash, Kubbard, cooked 6.00 - 6.20
Squash, white, cooked 5.52 - 5.80
Squash, yellow, cooked 5.79 - 6.00
Strawberries 3.00 - 3.90
Strawberries, California 3.32 - 3.50
Strawberries, frozen 3.21 - 3.32
Strawberry Jam 3.00 - 3.40
Straw mushroom 4.90
Sweet Potatoes 5.30 - 5.60
Swiss Chard, cooked 6.17 - 6.78
Tamarind 3.00 -
Tangerine 3.32 - 4.48
Taro syrup 4.50
Tea 7.20
Three-Bean Salad 5.40
Tofu (soybean Curd) 7.20
Tomatillo (resembling Cherry tomatoes) 3.83
Tomatoes 4.30 - 4.90
Tomatoes, canned 3.50 - 4.70
Tomatoes, Juice 4.10 - 4.60
Tomatoes, Paste 3.50 - 4.70
Tomatoes, Puree 4.30 - 4.47
Tomatoes, Strained 4.32 - 4.58
Tomatoes, Wine ripened 4.42 - 4.65
Tomato Soup, Cream of, canned 4.62
Truffle 5.30 - 6.50
Tuna Fish, canned 5.90 - 6.20
Turnips 5.29 - 5.90
Turnip, greens, cooked 5.40 - 6.20
Turnip, white, cooked 5.76 - 5.85
Turnip, yellow, cooked 5.57 - 5.82
Vegetable Juice 3.90 - 4.30
Vegetable soup, canned 5.16
Vegetable soup, chopped 4.98 - 5.02
Vegetable soup, strained 4.99 - 5.00
Vermicelli, cooked 5.80 - 6.50
Vinegar 2.40 - 3.40
Vinegar, cider 3.10
Walnuts, English 5.42
Wax gourd drink 7.20
Water Chestnut 6.00 - 6.20
Watercress 5.88 - 6.18
Watermelon 5.18 - 5.60
Wheat Krispice 4.99 - 5.62
Wheatnena 5.85 - 6.08
Wheaties 5.00 - 5.12
Worcestershire sauce 3.63 - 4.00
Yams, cooked 5.50 - 6.81
Yeast 5.65
Yangsberries, frozen 3.00 - 3.70
Zucchini, cooked 5.69 - 6.10
Zwiebach 4.84 - 4.94