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Master List of Typical pH and Acid Content of Fruits and Vegetables for Home Canning and Preserving

Master List of Typical pH and Acid Content of Fruits, Vegetables, Meats, Etc. for Home Canning and Preserving

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Updated for 2020 Chart of pH of common substances

The pH and/or acidity of a food is generally used to determine the safe home canning methods and conditions. The term "pH" is a measure of acidity; the lower its value, the more acid the food. The equipment used for determining pH was generally pH meters. Canning methods are described on this page. Some liquids, like lemon juice, lime juice and vinegar, are used as acidifiers, to help lower the pH of foods to increase safety. See this page for an explanation. Understand that in presenting this information, we are not encouraging anyone to invent their own canning recipes - they would still require lab testing to determine their safety. But this may help with simple substitutions. Canning directions and recipes that are based on this information and tested in a lab are provided here.

The approximate ranges of pH values for many common fresh and processed foods are listed below. Keep in mind that considerable variation exists between varieties, condition of growing and processing methods, etc. The data presented is applicable to the edible portion of foods in their normal and natural state, unless otherwise designated. The FDA would like your input to this matter. This list will be updated when new information is available.

Acid foods are foods that contain enough acid to have a pH of 4.6 or lower. They include fruits, pickles, sauerkraut, jams, jellies, marmalades, and fruit butters. Acidic foods can be processed safely in a boiling water canner, usually without added acid (lemon juice, vinegar or citric acid). This is necessary to control botulinum bacteria. Acidity may be natural, as in most fruits, or added, as in pickled food. Low-acid canned foods are not acidic enough to prevent the growth of these bacteria. Acid foods contain enough acid to block their growth, or destroy them more rapidly when heated. The acidity level in foods can usually be increased by adding lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar, although this by itself, does not mean the recipe is safe.

Low-acid foods have pH values higher than 4.6 up to 6.9. (non-acidic, or alkaline foods have pH values of 7.0 or greater) .They include red meats, seafood, poultry, milk, and all fresh vegetables except for most tomatoes. Most mixtures of low-acid and acid foods also have pH values above 4.6 unless their recipes include enough lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar to make them acid foods.

In using this table, bear in mind that considerable variation exists between varieties, condition of growing and processing methods, etc. Data is presented for the edible portion of foods in their normal and natural state, unless otherwise designated.  Where the research found a range of values due to variability in the samples, the range is provided.  Where a single consistent value was determined, that value is provided.

If you would like to see the table broken down by categories, see these links:

 

Master List of pH of Foods
Item Approximate pH Lower range Upper range
Abalone 6.30 6.10 6.50
Ackees 5.50    
All Bran, cereal 5.89 5.59 6.19
Aloe Juice 6.40 6.00 6.80
Aloe vera 6.10    
Anchovies 6.50    
Apple Juice 3.68 3.35 4.00
Apple, baked with sugar 3.38 3.20 3.55
Apple, eating 3.65 3.30 4.00
Apples      
Apples, Golden Delicious 3.60    
Apples, Jonathan 3.33    
Apples, McIntosh 3.34    
Apples, Red Delicious 3.90    
Apples, Winesap 3.47    
Applesauce 3.35 3.10 3.60
Apricot Nectar 3.78    
Apricots, Canned 3.40    
Apricots, Canned 3.59 3.40 3.78
Apricots, Dried, stewed 3.41 3.30 3.51
Apricots, fresh 4.05 3.30 4.80
Apricots, Pureed, 3.63 3.42 3.83
Artichokes 5.75 5.50 6.00
Artichokes, canned, acidified 4.45 4.30 4.60
Artichokes, French, cooked 5.80 5.60 6.00
Artichokes, Jerusalem, cooked 5.97 5.93 6.00
Asparagus 6.35 6.00 6.70
Asparagus Buds 6.70    
Asparagus Stalks 6.10    
Asparagus, canned 5.50 5.00 6.00
Asparagus, cooked 6.10 6.03 6.16
Asparagus, frozen, cooked 6.42 6.35 6.48
Asparagus, green, canned 5.26 5.20 5.32
Asparagus, strained 4.95 4.80 5.09
Avocados 6.43 6.27 6.58
Baby corn 5.20    
Bamboo Shoots  5.65 5.10 6.20
Bamboo Shoots, preserved 4.05 3.50 4.60
Banana, yellow 5.15 5.00 5.29
Bananas 4.85 4.50 5.20
Bananas, red 4.67 4.58 4.75
Barley, cooked 5.26 5.19 5.32
Basil pesto 4.90    
Beans (generic) 6.05 5.60 6.50
Beans, Black beans 5.90 5.78 6.02
Beans, Boston style 5.24 5.05 5.42
Beans, Kidney 5.70 5.40 6.00
Beans, Lima 6.50    
Beans, pork & tomato sauce, canned 5.45 5.10 5.80
Beans, refried 5.90    
Beans, Soy 6.30 6.00 6.60
Beans, String 5.60    
Beans, vegetarian w tomato sauce, canned 5.32    
Beans, Wax 5.50 5.30 5.70
Beef 5.55 5.40 5.70
Beets 5.95 5.30 6.60
Beets, canned 5.35 4.90 5.80
Beets, canned, acidified 4.45 4.30 4.60
Beets, chopped 5.44 5.32 5.56
Beets, cooked 5.87 5.23 6.50
Beets, strained 5.44 5.32 5.56
Blackberries, Washington 4.18 3.85 4.50
Blueberries, frozen 3.17 3.11 3.22
Blueberries, Maine 3.23 3.12 3.33
Bluefish (Boston, filet, broiled) 6.30 6.09 6.50
Bluefish, Boston, filet, broiled 6.30 6.09 6.50
Bread Rolls, white 5.49 5.46 5.52
Breadfruit, cooked 5.33    
Broccoli Cheese Soup, condensed 5.60    
Broccoli, canned 5.60 5.20 6.00
Broccoli, cooked 6.41 6.30 6.52
Broccoli, frozen, (blanched) 6.58 6.30 6.85
Brussels sprout 6.15 6.00 6.30
Buttermilk 4.62 4.41 4.83
Cabbage 6.00 5.20 6.80
Cabbage, Green 6.13 5.50 6.75
Cabbage, Red 5.80 5.60 6.00
Cabbage, Savoy 6.30    
Cabbage, White 6.20    
Cactus 4.70    
Cantaloupe 6.36 6.13 6.58
Capers 6.00    
Carp 6.00    
Carp 6.00    
Carrots 6.14 5.88 6.40
Carrots, canned 5.20 5.18 5.22
Carrots, chopped 5.43 5.30 5.56
Carrots, cooked 5.81 5.58 6.03
Carrots, pureed 5.18 4.55 5.80
Carrots, strained 5.10 5.10 5.10
Cauliflower 5.60    
Cauliflower, cooked 6.63 6.45 6.80
Caviar, American 5.85 5.70 6.00
Caviar, American 5.85 5.70 6.00
Celery 5.85 5.70 6.00
Celery Knob, cooked 5.78 5.71 5.85
Celery, cooked 5.65 5.37 5.92
Cereal, strained 6.45 6.44 6.45
Chayote (mirliton), cooked 6.15 6.00 6.30
Cheese (Blue, Brie, Queso Fresco) 6.35 6.20 6.50
Cheese (Gouda, Mozzarella, Colby) 5.25 5.10 5.40
Cheese (Gruyere, Swiss, Fresh Mozzarella) 5.60 5.50 5.70
Cheese Dip 5.80    
Cheese, American, mild 4.98    
Cheese, Camembert 7.44    
Cheese, Cheddar 5.90    
Cheese, Cottage 4.89 4.75 5.02
Cheese, Cream, Philadelphia 4.45 4.10 4.79
Cheese, Edem 5.40    
Cheese, Feta 4.75 4.60 4.90
Cheese, Old English 6.15    
Cheese, Parmesan 5.25 5.20 5.30
Cheese, Roquefort 5.54 5.10 5.98
Cheese, Snippy 5.20 5.18 5.21
Cheese, Stilton 5.70    
Cheese, Swiss Gruyere 6.15 5.68 6.62
Cherries, black, canned 3.88 3.82 3.93
Cherries, California 4.28 4.01 4.54
Cherries, frozen 3.35 3.32 3.37
Cherries, Maraschino 3.50 3.47 3.52
Cherries, red, Water pack 3.54 3.25 3.82
Cherries, Royal Ann 3.82 3.80 3.83
Chicken 5.90 5.30 6.50
Chicken Broth 5.80    
Chicory 5.98 5.90 6.05
Chili Sauce, acidified 3.24 2.77 3.70
Chives 5.76 5.20 6.31
Chopped Vegetable Soup 5.00 4.98 5.02
Chrysanthemum drink 6.50    
Clams 6.55 6.00 7.10
Coconut milk 6.55 6.10 7.00
Coconut preserves 5.40 3.80 7.00
Coconut, fresh 6.65 5.50 7.80
Conch 7.96 7.52 8.40
Congee 6.40    
Corn Flakes 5.38    
Corn Soup, condensed 6.80    
Corn, canned 6.20 5.90 6.50
Corn, fresh 6.60 5.90 7.30
Corn, frozen, cooked 7.51 7.33 7.68
Corn, Golden Bantam, cooked on cob 6.63 6.22 7.04
Crab meat 6.75 6.50 7.00
Crab meat 6.75 6.50 7.00
Crabapple jelly 2.98 2.93 3.02
Crabmeat, cooked 6.80 6.62 6.98
Crabmeat, cooked 6.80 6.62 6.98
Cranberry Juice, canned 2.41 2.30 2.52
Cream of Asparagus 6.10    
Cream of Asparagus Soup 6.10    
Cream of Celery Soup, condensed 6.20    
Cream of Coconut Soup 5.69 5.51 5.87
Cream of Coconut, canned 5.69 5.51 5.87
Cream of Mushroom Soup 6.18 5.95 6.40
Cream of Mushroom Soup, condensed 6.10 6.00 6.20
Cream of Pea Soup, canned 5.70    
Cream of Potato soup 6.00    
Cream of Potato Soup, condensed 5.80    
Cream of shrimp Soup, condensed 5.80    
Cream of Tomato Soup 4.62    
Cream of Wheat, cooked 6.11 6.06 6.16
Cream style corn Soup, condense 5.75 5.70 5.80
Cream, 20 per cent 6.59 6.50 6.68
Cream, 40 per cent 6.62 6.44 6.80
Cucumbers 5.45 5.12 5.78
Cucumbers, Dill pickles 3.45 3.20 3.70
Cucumbers, pickled 4.40 4.20 4.60
Curry Paste,acidified 4.70 4.60 4.80
Curry sauce 6.00    
Cuttlefish 6.30    
Dates, canned 6.30 6.20 6.40
Dates, Dromedary 4.51 4.14 4.88
Eell 6.20    
Egg Whites 7.96    
Egg Whites 7.96    
Egg Yolk 6.10    
Egg Yolk 6.10    
Eggplant 6.00 5.50 6.50
Eggs, new-laid, whole 6.58    
Eggs, new-laid, whole 6.58    
Enchilada sauce 4.55 4.40 4.70
Escarole 5.85 5.70 6.00
Fennel (Anise) 5.68 5.48 5.88
Fennel, cooked 5.91 5.80 6.02
Figs, Calamyrna 5.52 5.05 5.98
Figs, canned 4.96 4.92 5.00
Flounder, boiled 6.50 6.10 6.90
Flounder, fi1et, broiled 6.64 6.39 6.89
Four bean salad 5.60    
Fruit cocktail 3.80 3.60 4.00
Garlic 5.80    
Gelatin Dessert 2.60    
Gelatin, plain jell 6.08    
Ginger root 5.75 5.60 5.90
Ginseng , Korean drink 6.25 6.00 6.50
Gooseberries 2.95 2.80 3.10
Graham Crackers 7.51 7.10 7.92
Grapefruit 3.38 3.00 3.75
Grapefruit Juice, canned 3.08 2.90 3.25
Grapefruit, canned 3.20 3.08 3.32
Grapes, canned 4.00 3.50 4.50
Grapes, Concord 2.90 2.80 3.00
Grapes, Lady Finger 3.55 3.51 3.58
Grapes, Malaga 3.75 3.71 3.78
Grapes, Niagara 3.04 2.80 3.27
Grapes, Ribier 3.75 3.70 3.80
Grapes, Seedless 3.36 2.90 3.82
Grapes, Tokyo 3.67 3.50 3.84
Grass jelly 6.50 5.80 7.20
Greens, Mixed, chopped 5.14 5.05 5.22
Greens, Mixed, strained 5.26 5.22 5.30
Grenadine Syrup 2.31    
Guava Jelly 3.73    
Guava nectar 5.50    
Guava, canned 3.74 3.37 4.10
Hearts of Palm 5.70    
Hominy, cooked 6.75 6.00 7.50
Honey 3.95 3.70 4.20
Honey Aloe 4.70    
Horseradish, freshly ground 5.35    
Huckleberries, cooked with sugar 3.41 3.38 3.43
Jackfruit 5.80 4.80 6.80
Jam, (fruit jams) 4.00 3.50 4.50
Jellies, fruit 3.25 3.00 3.50
Jujube 5.20    
Kale, cooked 6.58 6.36 6.80
Ketchup 3.91 3.89 3.92
Kippered, Herring, Marshall 5.98 5.75 6.20
Kumquat, Florida 3.95 3.64 4.25
Leeks 5.84 5.50 6.17
Leeks, cooked 5.80 5.49 6.10
Lemon Juice 2.30 2.00 2.60
Lentil Soup 5.80    
Lentil Soup 5.80    
Lentils, cooked 6.57 6.30 6.83
Lettuce 5.98 5.80 6.15
Lettuce, Boston 5.97 5.89 6.05
Lettuce, Iceberg 5.92 5.70 6.13
Lettuce, Romaine  5.92 5.78 6.06
Lime Juice 2.18 2.00 2.35
Limes 2.40 2.00 2.80
Lobster bisque 6.90 6.90 6.90
Lobster Soup 5.70    
Lobster, cooked 7.27 7.10 7.43
Loganberries 3.10 2.70 3.50
Loganberries 3.10 2.70 3.50
Loquat (May be acidified to pH 3.8) 5.10    
Lotus Root 6.90    
Lychee 4.86 4.70 5.01
Mackerel, canned 6.15 5.90 6.40
Mackerel, King, boiled 6.38 6.26 6.50
Mackerel, Spanish, broiled 6.22 6.07 6.36
Mangoes, green / unripe 4.10 3.40 4.80
Mangoes, ripe 5.90 5.80 6.00
Mangostine  4.75 4.50 5.00
Maple syrup 5.15    
Maple syrup, light (Acidified) 4.60    
Matzos 5.70    
Mayhaw 3.57 3.27 3.86
Melba Toast 5.19 5.08 5.30
Melon, Casaba 5.89 5.78 6.00
Melons, Honey dew 6.34 6.00 6.67
Melons, Persian 6.14 5.90 6.38
Milk, condensed 6.33    
Milk, evaporated 6.10 5.90 6.30
Milk, Goat's 6.48    
Minestrone Soup, condensed 5.40    
Mint Jelly 3.01    
Molasses 5.15 4.90 5.40
Muscadine (A variety of grape) 3.30 3.20 3.40
Mushrooms 6.35 6.00 6.70
Mushrooms, cooked 6.11 6.00 6.22
Mustard 4.78 3.55 6.00
Nata De Coco 5.00    
Nectarines 4.05 3.92 4.18
New England Clam Chowder Soup, condensed 6.00    
Okra, cooked 6.05 5.50 6.60
Olives, black 6.50 6.00 7.00
Olives, green, fermented 4.10 3.60 4.60
Olives, ripe 6.75 6.00 7.50
Onions, pickled 4.15 3.70 4.60
Onions, red 5.55 5.30 5.80
Onions, white 5.61 5.37 5.85
Onions, yellow 5.46 5.32 5.60
Orange Juice, California 3.75 3.30 4.19
Orange, Juice Florida 3.73 3.30 4.15
Orange, Marmalade 3.17 3.00 3.33
Oranges, Florida 4.02 3.69 4.34
Oranges, Florida "color added" 3.75 3.60 3.90
Oyster mushrooms 5.50 5.00 6.00
Oyster Stew, condensed 6.30    
Oysters 5.93 5.68 6.17
Oysters, smoked 6.00    
Palm, heart of 6.70    
Papaya 5.60 5.20 6.00
Papaya Marmalade 3.77 3.53 4.00
Parsley 5.85 5.70 6.00
Parsnip 5.50 5.30 5.70
Parsnips, cooked 5.55 5.45 5.65
Pate 5.90    
Pate 5.90    
Pea Soup, Cream of, Canned 5.70    
Peaches 3.68 3.30 4.05
Peaches, canned 3.95 3.70 4.20
Peaches, cooked with sugar 3.64 3.55 3.72
Peaches, frozen 3.32 3.28 3.35
Peanut Butter 6.28    
Peanut Soup 7.50    
Peanut Soup 7.50    
Pear Nectar 4.03    
Pears, Bartlett 4.05 3.50 4.60
Pears, canned 4.04 4.00 4.07
Pears, Sickle cooked w/sugar 4.13 4.04 4.21
Peas, canned 5.85 5.70 6.00
Peas, Chick, Garbanzo 6.64 6.48 6.80
Peas, cooked 6.55 6.22 6.88
Peas, dried (split green), cooked 6.63 6.45 6.80
Peas, dried (split yellow), cooked 6.53 6.43 6.62
Peas, frozen, cooked 6.55 6.40 6.70
Peas, pureed 5.38 4.90 5.85
Peas, strained 6.02 5.91 6.12
Peppers 5.05 4.65 5.45
Peppers, green 5.57 5.20 5.93
Persimmons 4.56 4.42 4.70
Pickles, fresh pack 5.25 5.10 5.40
Pimento, canned, acidified 4.50 4.40 4.60
Pimiento 4.65 4.40 4.90
Pineapple 3.60 3.20 4.00
Pineapple Juice, canned 3.45 3.30 3.60
Pineapple, canned 3.73 3.35 4.10
Plum Nectar 3.45    
Plums, Blue 3.10 2.80 3.40
Plums, Damson 3.00 2.90 3.10
Plums, Frozen 3.32 3.22 3.42
Plums, Green Gage 3.95 3.60 4.30
Plums, Green Gage, canned 3.27 3.22 3.32
Plums, Red 3.95 3.60 4.30
Plums, spiced 3.64    
Plums, Yellow 4.18 3.90 4.45
Pollack, filet, broiled 6.77 6.72 6.82
Pollack, filet, broiled 6.77 6.72 6.82
Pomegranate 3.07 2.93 3.20
Porgy, broiled 6.45 6.40 6.49
Pork 5.65 5.60 5.70
Potato Soup 5.90    
Potato Soup 5.90    
Potatoes 5.65 5.40 5.90
Potatoes (fresh tubers) 5.70    
Potatoes, Mashed 5.10    
Prune Juice 3.96 3.95 3.97
Prune, pureed 3.95 3.60 4.30
Prune, strained 3.71 3.58 3.83
Prunes, dried, stewed 3.78 3.63 3.92
Puffed Rice 6.34 6.27 6.40
Puffed Wheat 5.52 5.26 5.77
Pumpkin 5.20 4.90 5.50
Quince Jelly 3.70    
Quince, fresh, stewed 3.26 3.12 3.40
Radishes, red 5.95 5.85 6.05
Radishes, white 5.61 5.52 5.69
Raisins, seedless grape raisins 3.95 3.80 4.10
Rambutan (Thailand) 4.90    
Raspberries 3.59 3.22 3.95
Raspberries, frozen 3.22 3.18 3.26
Raspberries, New Jersey 3.66 3.50 3.82
Raspberry Jam 3.02 2.87 3.17
Rattan, Thailand 5.20    
Razor shell (sea asparagus) 6.00    
Red Ginseng 5.50    
Red Pepper Relish 3.36 3.10 3.62
Rhubarb 3.25 3.10 3.40
Rhubarb, California, stewed 3.27 3.20 3.34
Rice (all types, when cooked)      
Rice Krispies 5.57 5.40 5.73
Rice, Brown 6.50 6.20 6.80
Rice, White 6.35 6.00 6.70
Rice, Wild 6.25 6.00 6.50
Salmon, fresh fillet 6.29 6.23 6.35
Salmon, fresh, boiled 6.18 5.85 6.50
Salmon, fresh, broiled 5.88 5.36 6.40
Salmon, Red Alaska, canned 6.12 6.07 6.16
Salsa (tomato based)      
Sauerkraut 3.45 3.30 3.60
Scallion 6.20    
Scallops 6.00    
Shallots, cooked 5.50 5.30 5.70
Shredded Wheat 6.27 6.05 6.49
Shrimp 6.75 6.50 7.00
Shrimp Paste 5.89 5.00 6.77
Smelts, Sauted 6.79 6.67 6.90
Soda Crackers 6.49 5.65 7.32
Soup Cream of Potato 6.00    
Soy infant formula 6.80 6.60 7.00
Soy Sauce 4.90 4.40 5.40
Soybean milk 7.00    
Spinach 6.15 5.50 6.80
Spinach, chopped 5.45 5.38 5.52
Spinach, cooked 6.89 6.60 7.18
Spinach, frozen, cooked 6.41 6.30 6.52
Spinach, pureed 5.86 5.50 6.22
Spinach, strained 5.71 5.63 5.79
Squash, acorn, cooked 5.84 5.18 6.49
Squash, Kubbard, cooked 6.10 6.00 6.20
Squash, white, cooked 5.66 5.52 5.80
Squash, yellow, cooked 5.90 5.79 6.00
Squid   6.00 6.50
Strained Vegetable Soup 5.00 4.99 5.00
Straw mushroom 4.90    
Strawberries 3.45 3.00 3.90
Strawberries, California 3.41 3.32 3.50
Strawberries, frozen 3.27 3.21 3.32
Strawberry Jam 3.20 3.00 3.40
Sweet Potatoes 5.45 5.30 5.60
Swiss Chard, cooked 6.48 6.17 6.78
Tamarind 3.00    
Tangerine 3.90 3.32 4.48
Taro syrup 4.50    
Tea 7.20    
Three-Bean Salad 5.40    
Tofu (aka, Soy bean curd) 7.20    
Tofu (soybean Curd) 7.20    
Tomatillo (resembling Cherry tomatoes) 3.83    
Tomato Rice Soup, condensed 5.50    
Tomato Soup, Cream of, canned 4.62    
Tomatoes 4.60 4.30 4.90
Tomatoes, canned 4.10 3.50 4.70
Tomatoes, Juice 4.35 4.10 4.60
Tomatoes, Paste 4.10 3.50 4.70
Tomatoes, Puree 4.39 4.30 4.47
Tomatoes, Strained 4.45 4.32 4.58
Tomatoes, Vine ripened 4.54 4.42 4.65
Truffle 5.90 5.30 6.50
Tuna Fish, canned 6.05 5.90 6.20
Turnip, greens, cooked 5.80 5.40 6.20
Turnip, white, cooked 5.81 5.76 5.85
Turnip, yellow, cooked 5.70 5.57 5.82
Turnips 5.60 5.29 5.90
Vegetable Juice 4.10 3.90 4.30
Vegetable Soup, canned 5.16    
Vinegar 2.90 2.40 3.40
Vinegar, cider 3.10    
Walnuts, English 5.42    
Water Chestnut 6.10 6.00 6.20
Watercress 6.03 5.88 6.18
Watermelon 5.39 5.18 5.60
Wax gourd drink 7.20    
Whole milk 6.65 6.40 6.90
Yams, cooked 6.16 5.50 6.81
Yangsberries, frozen 3.35 3.00 3.70
Yeast 5.65    
Yoghurt 4.60 4.40 4.80
Zucchini, cooked 5.90 5.69 6.10
Zwiebach 4.89 4.84 4.94

References:

The research upon which our analysis and the resultant table above relies is from FDA and other university institution that have conducted research about the pH of foods.

  1. U.S. FDA and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
  2. Anon. 1962. pH values of food products. Food Eng. 34(3): 98-99.
  3. Bridges, M. A., and Mattice, M.R. 1939. Over two thousand estimations of the pH of representative foods, American J. Digestive Diseases, 9:440-449.
  4. Warren L. Landry and et al. 1995. Examination of canned foods. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Ed. Chapter 21, Table 11, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD 20877
  5. Grahn M.A. 1984. Acidified and low acid foods from Southeast Asia. FDA-LIB
  6. PubMed provides a comparison reference:  Blood has a pH range of 7.35 to 7.45 and stomach acid have a pH of about 3 to 5.5Trusted Source. 


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