In the U.S., Pears typically peak during late August through September in the South, and September and October in the North. In order to produce good local pears, producers depend on ideal spring and early summer weather conditions, and no late frosts.
Now, here's the surprise: pears are picked unripe and left to ripe in a cool, dry, dark place (like a basement or garage). If you wait for them to ripen on the tree, you probably won't harvest many - they'll rot and be attacked by bugs and birds.
Before you leave to go to the farm:
When you get home - Recipes, Canning, Jams and more
There are 3 main types of pears:
The fruit can be ripened on the tree, but for better quality, they are best picked early and allowed to ripen indoors. Most pears ripen from the inside out, and if left on the tree to ripen, many varieties will become brown at the core and rotten the middle. This is especially common in most fall pears.
Pears have a characteristically gritty texture caused by cells in the meat
called stone cells. Although modern varieties have fewer of these stone cells,
all varieties still contain them. Picking the pears before they have matured and
holding them under cool controlled conditions prevents the formation of too many
stone cells, and results in a less gritty pear!
Pears are delicate even when they're hard and green, so they're always picked by hand. A few guidelines to use in determining whether pears are ready to be picked include:
Marks on the Pears: Bugs (particularly squash bugs and stink bugs) bite fruit during development and this results in some imperfections in the pear. This is especially the case with organically raised fruit. These look like dents in the pears if the pears were bitten by a bug when they were young. This causes a spot that does not grow properly and makes a wrinkle in the pear. There's nothing wrong with these pears. They may look funny, but they will taste just as good as blemish-free pears, and it's better not to have the pesticides!
- Carbohydrates make up 98% of the energy provided by a pear.
- Pears provide a natural quick source of energy, due largely to high amounts of two monosaccharides: fructose and glucose.
- A pear provides 30% more potassium than an apple. Potassium is necessary for maintaining heartbeat, muscle
contraction, nerve transmission, and carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
- One medium pear provides 11% of the RDA for ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
- A pear, with skin, weighing 166 grams, provides 2.32 grams of crude fiber, and 4.5 grams of dietary fiber, of
which 41% is pectin.
Pear Nutrient Values Based on 1 medium fresh pear, 166 grams
Nutrient Amt. in % of a Pear **RDA
- Calories 100
- Protein .65 g 1.5%
- Fat .66 g
- Carbohydrates 25 g
- Pectin 1.8 g
- Total Dietary Fiber 4.5 g
- Crude Fiber 2.32 g
- Vitamin A 33 IU 1%
- Thiamin .03 mg 3%
- Riboflavin .07 mg 6%
- Niacin .17 mg 1%
- Pantothenic Acid 12 mg
- Folacin 12.1 mcg 3%
- Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) 7 mg 11%
- Vitamin E .83 mg 10%
- Calcium 19 mg 2%
- Phosphorus 18 mg 2%
- Copper .19 mg
- Iron .41 mg 2%
- Magnesium 9 mg 3%
- Potassium 208 mg
* Handbook 8-9, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1982
** RDA for Female 23-50 yrs., weight 58kg (128 lbs)
Most supermarkets don't sell really ripe pears because they bruise so easily, but it's very easy to ripen them at home. If pears are picked before they are fully ripe, they should be ripened at a temperature of 60 F to 70 F. This will result in optimum quality and smoothness of flesh. If you want to keep pears for a longer period of time, store the freshly picked fruit in the refrigerator. They'll keep for many weeks!
Fall pears can be kept on a shelf at room temperature until ready to eat when yellow color develops and the fruit begins to soften. Fall pears can be stored but usually do not keep for more than 4 to 6 weeks, Many people use their fall pears for canning and drying.
Asian pears can be stored but may develop a strong, wine-like taste if kept too long. If you store Asian pears loosely in a box, clip the stems short, because the stiff stems can puncture and damage neighboring fruit. And allow enough space that the pears do not touch each other; pears that rub each other will often become dark at the rub points.
Winter pears should be put into some kind of cold storage (below 40 F, down to 33 F) for at least 3 weeks. After that period, you can start to bring out fruit as needed to soften up at room temperature. At first it may take 5 to 9 days before the pears are ready to eat; later on a couple of days at room temperature may be long enough.
In most recipes, frozen or canned pears can be substituted for fresh pears. The frozen and canned pears have already been sweetened; therefore, the amount of sugar called for in a recipe will have to be adjusted. Also, the pears should usually be drained before using.