There are 3 main types of pears:
|Asian||Asian pears come in many varieties, but are less common in the US (except in Asian grocery stores). Generally very round, like softball, sweet and a soft, grainy texture.||Eating fresh, cooking||August - January|
|Bartlett||Bell-shaped common in grocery stores, changes from green to yellow as it ripes in storage||Eating fresh, canning||August - January|
|Bosc||Yellow-brownish with a long neck. Spicier flavor, complements dishes using cinnamon, nutmeg, etc. If you are growing pears, it is a good pollinator for Bartlett||Baking, cooking||September - January.
Harvest 3 to 4 weeks after Bartlett.
|Comice||A short, round very sweet pear.||Eating fresh||September - January.|
|Concorde||A very sweet green pear with a juicy flesh and vanilla-like flavor||Eating fresh, canning, cooking||September - January.|
|D'Anjou||Egg-shaped, green, wioth speckles. More tart than Bartlett.||Eating fresh, baking, cooking||October - January|
|Forelle||A smaller pear with a dense, grainier flesh.||Eating fresh, general use||September - January.|
|Kieffer||Slightly smaller than other pears. Creamy yellow color with brown speckles.||Canning (only)||Mid-September - January
Harvest 5 to 6 weeks after Bartlett.
|Red pears||There are several variants of pears that are red when ripe: Red Bartett, Red D'Anjou and||September - January.|
|Seckel||A very sweet round, no-necked green, small sized pear with a red bluish.||Eating fresh, canning||September - December|
When you get home - Recipes, Canning, Jams and more
The fruit can be ripened on the tree, but for better quality, they are best picked early and allowed to ripen indoors. Most pears ripen from the inside out, and if left on the tree to ripen, many varieties will become brown at the core and rotten the middle. This is especially common in most fall pears.
Pears have a characteristically gritty texture caused by cells in the meat
called stone cells. Although modern varieties have fewer of these stone cells,
all varieties still contain them. Picking the pears before they have matured and
holding them under cool controlled conditions prevents the formation of too many
stone cells, and results in a less gritty pear!
Pears are delicate even when they're hard and green, so they're always picked by hand. A few guidelines to use in determining whether pears are ready to be picked include:
Marks on the Pears: Bugs (particularly squash bugs and stink bugs) bite fruit during development and this results in some imperfections in the pear. This is especially the case with organically raised fruit. These look like dents in the pears if the pears were bitten by a bug when they were young. This causes a spot that does not grow properly and makes a wrinkle in the pear. There's nothing wrong with these pears. They may look funny, but they will taste just as good as blemish-free pears, and it's better not to have the pesticides!
Now, here's the surprise: pears are picked unripe and left to ripe in a cool, dry, dark place (like a basement or garage). If you wait for them to ripen on the tree, you probably won't harvest many - they'll rot and be attacked by bugs and birds. Most supermarkets don't sell really ripe pears because they bruise so easily, but it's very easy to ripen them at home. If pears are picked before they are fully ripe, they should be ripened at a temperature of 60 F to 70 F. This will result in optimum quality and smoothness of flesh. If you want to keep pears for a longer period of time, store the freshly picked fruit in the refrigerator. They'll keep for many weeks!
Fall pears can be kept on a shelf at room temperature until ready to eat when yellow color develops and the fruit begins to soften. Fall pears can be stored but usually do not keep for more than 4 to 6 weeks, Many people use their fall pears for canning and drying.
Asian pears can be stored but may develop a strong, wine-like taste if kept too long. If you store Asian pears loosely in a box, clip the stems short, because the stiff stems can puncture and damage neighboring fruit. And allow enough space that the pears do not touch each other; pears that rub each other will often become dark at the rub points.
Winter pears should be put into some kind of cold storage (below 40 F, down to 33 F) for at least 3 weeks. After that period, you can start to bring out fruit as needed to soften up at room temperature. At first it may take 5 to 9 days before the pears are ready to eat; later on a couple of days at room temperature may be long enough.