Master List of Typical pH and Acid Content of Fruits and Vegetables for Home Canning and Preserving

The pH and/or acidity of a food is generally used to determine the safe home canning methods and conditions. The term "pH" is a measure of acidity; the lower its value, the more acid the food. The equipment used for determining pH was generally pH meters. Canning methods are described on this page. Some liquids,like lemon juice, lime juice and vinegar, are used as acidifiers, to help lower the pH of foods to incease safety. See this page for an explantion.

The approximate ranges of pH values for many common fresh and processed foods are listed below. Keep in mind that considerable variation exists between varieties, condition of growing and processing methods, etc. The data presented is applicable to the edible portion of foods in their normal and natural state, unless otherwise designated. The FDA would like your input to this matter. This list will be updated when new information is available. Please contact the LACF Coordinator by phone at 301-436-2411 or email to lacf@cfsan.fda.gov.

Acid foods are foods that contain enough acid to have a pH of 4.6 or lower. They include fruits, pickles, sauerkraut, jams, jellies, marmalades, and fruit butters. Acidic foods can be processed safely in a boiling water canner, usually without added acid (lemon juice, vinegar or citric acid). This is necessary to control botulinum bacteria. Acidity may be natural, as in most fruits, or added, as in pickled food. Low-acid canned foods are not acidic enough to prevent the growth of these bacteria. Acid foods contain enough acid to block their growth, or destroy them more rapidly when heated. The acidity level in foods can usually be increased by adding lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar, although this by itself, does not mean the recipe is safe.

Low-acid foods have pH values higher than 4.6 up to 6.9. (non-acidic, or alkaline foods have pH values of 7.0 or greater) .They include red meats, seafood, poultry, milk, and all fresh vegetables except for most tomatoes. Most mixtures of low-acid and acid foods also have pH values above 4.6 unless their recipes include enough lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar to make them acid foods.

Item Approximate pH
Abalone 6.10 - 6.50
Abalone mushroom 5.00 -
Ackees 5.50
Aloe vera 6.10
Aloe Juice 6.00 - 6.80
Anchovies 6.50
Anchovies, stuffed w/capers, in olive oil 5.58
Antipesto 5.60 -
Apple, baked with sugar 3.20 - 3.55
Apple, eating 3.30 - 4.00
Apples  
Delicious
3.90
Golden Delicious
3.60
Jonathan
3.33
McIntosh
3.34
Juice
3.35 - 4.00
Sauce
3.10 - 3.60
Winesap
3.47
Apricots 3.30 - 4.80
Canned
3.40 - 3.78
Dried, stewed
3.30 - 3.51
Nectar
3.78
Pureed,
3.42 - 3.83
Strained
3.72 - 3.95
Arrowroot Crackers 6.63 - 6.80
Arrowroot Cruel 6.37 - 6.87
Artichokes 5.50 - 6.00
Artichokes, canned, acidified 4.30 - 4.60
Artichokes, French, cooked 5.60 - 6.00
Artichokes, Jerusalem, cooked 5.93 - 6.00
Asparagus 6.00 - 6.70
Buds
6.70
Stalks
6.10
Asparagus, cooked 6.03 - 6.16
Asparagus, canned 5.00 - 6.00
Asparagus, frozen, cooked 6.35 - 6.48
Asparagus, green, canned 5.20 - 5.32
Asparagus, strained 4.80 - 5.09
Avocados 6.27 - 6.58
Baby corn 5.20 -
Baby Food Soup, unstrained 5.95 - 6.05
Bamboo Shoots + 5.10 - 6.20
Bamboo Shoots, preserved 3.50 - 4.60
Bananas 4.50 - 5.20
Bananas, red 4.58 - 4.75
Banana, yellow 5.00 - 5.29
Barley, cooked 5.19 - 5.32
Basil pesto 4.90
Bass, sea, broiled 6.58 - 6.78
Bass, striped, broiled 6.50 - 6.70
Beans 5.60 - 6.50
Black
5.78 - 6.02
Boston style
5.05 - 5.42
Kidney
5.40 - 6.00
Lima
6.50
Soy
6.00 - 6.60
String
5.60
Wax
5.30 - 5.70
Beans, pork & tomato sauce, canned 5.10 - 5.80
Beans, refried 5.90
Beans, vegetarian, tomato sauce, canned 5.32
Beets 5.30 - 6.60
Beets, cooked 5.23 - 6.50
Beets, canned, acidified 4.30 - 4.60
Beets, canned 4.90 - 5.80
Beets, chopped 5.32 - 5.56
Beets, strained 5.32 - 5.56
Bird's nest soup 7.20 - 7.60
Blackberries, Washington 3.85 - 4.50
Blueberries, Maine 3.12 - 3.33
Blueberries, frozen 3.11 - 3.22
Bluefish, Boston, filet, broiled 6.09 - 6.50
Bran  
Flakes
5.45 - 5.67
All Bran
5.59 - 6.19
Bread, white 5.00 - 6.20
Bread, Boston, brown 6.53
Bread, Cracked wheat 5.43 - 5.50
Bread, pumpernickel 5.40 -
Bread, Rye 5.20 - 5.90
Bread, whole wheat 5.47 - 5.85
Breadfruit, cooked 5.33
Broccoli, cooked 6.30 - 6.52
Broccoli, frozen, cooked 6.30 - 6.85
Broccoli, canned 5.20 - 6.00
Brussels sprout 6.00 - 6.30
Buttermilk 4.41 - 4.83
Cabbage 5.20 - 6.80
Green
5.50 - 6.75
Red
5.60 - 6.00
Savoy
6.30
White
6.20
Cactus 4.70
Calamary (Squid) 5.80
Cantaloupe 6.13 - 6.58
Capers 6.00
Carp 6.00
Carrots 5.88 - 6.40
Carrots, canned 5.18 - 5.22
Carrots, chopped 5.30 - 5.56
Carrots, cooked 5.58 - 6.03
Carrots, pureed 4.55 - 5.80
Carrots, strained 5.10 - 5.10
Cauliflower 5.60
Cauliflower, cooked 6.45 - 6.80
Caviar, American 5.70 - 6.00
Celery 5.70 - 6.00
Celery, cooked 5.37 - 5.92
Celery Knob, cooked 5.71 - 5.85
Cereal, strained 6.44 - 6.45
Chayote (mirliton), cooked 6.00 - 6.30
Cheese, American, mild 4.98
Cheese, Camembert 7.44
Cheese, Cheddar 5.90
Cheese, Cottage 4.75 - 5.02
Cheese, Cream, Philadelphia 4.10 - 4.79
Cheese Dip 5.80
Cheese, Edem 5.40
Cheese, Old English 6.15
Cheese, Roquefort 5.10 - 5.98
Cheese, Parmesan 5.20 - 5.30
Cheese, Snippy 5.18 - 5.2l
Cheese, Stilton 5.70
Cheese, Swiss Gruyere 5.68 - 6.62
Cherries, California 4.01 - 4.54
Cherries, frozen 3.32 - 3.37
Cherries, black, canned 3.82 - 3.93
Cherries, Maraschino 3.47 - 3.52
Cherries, red, Water pack 3.25 - 3.82
Cherries, Royal Ann 3.80 - 3.83
Chicory 5.90 - 6.05
Chili Sauce, acidified 2.77 - 3.70
Chives 5.20 - 6.31
Clams 6.00 - 7.10
Clam Chowder, New England 6.40
Coconut, fresh 5.50 - 7.80
Coconut milk 6.10 - 7.00
Coconut preserves 3.80 - 7.00
Codfish, boiled 5.30 - 6.10
Cod liver 6.20
Conch 7.52 - 8.40
Congee 6.40
Corn 5.90 - 7.30
Corn, canned 5.90 - 6.50
Corn Flakes 4.90 - 5.38
Corn, frozen, cooked 7.33 - 7.68
Corn, Golden Bantam, cooked on cob 6.22 - 7.04
Crab meat 6.50 - 7.00
Crabapple Jelly, corn 2.93 - 3.02
Cranberry Juice, canned 2.30 - 2.52
Crabmeat, cooked 6.62 - 6.98
Cream, 20 per cent 6.50 - 6.68
Cream, 40 per cent 6.44 - 6.80
Cream of Asparagus 6.10
Cream of Coconut, canned 5.51 - 5.87
Cream of Potato soup 6.00
Cream of Wheat, cooked 6.06 - 6.16
Chrysanthemum drink 6.50
Cucumbers 5.12 - 5.78
Cucumbers, Dill pickles 3.20 - 3.70
Cucumbers, pickled 4.20 - 4.60
Curry sauce 6.00
Curry Paste,acidified 4.60 - 4.80
Cuttlefish 6.30
Dates, canned 6.20 - 6.40
Dates, Dromedary 4.14 - 4.88
Dungeness Crab Meat  
Eggplant 5.50 - 6.50
Eggs, new-laid, whole 6.58
White
7.96
Yolk
6.10
Eell 6.20
Escarolle 5.70 - 6.00
Enchalada sauce 4.40 - 4.70
Fennel (Anise) 5.48 - 5.88
Fennel, cooked 5.80 - 6.02
Figs, Calamyrna 5.05 - 5.98
Figs, canned 4.92 - 5.00
Flounder, boiled 6.10 - 6.90
Flounder, fi1et, broiled 6.39 - 6.89
Four bean salad 5.60
Fruit cocktail 3.60 - 4.00
Garlic 5.80
Gelatin Dessert 2.60
Gelatin, plain jell 6.08
Gherkin  
Ginger 5.60 - 5.90
Ginseng , Korean drink 6.00 - 6.50
Gooseberries 2.80 - 3.10
Graham Crackers 7.10 - 7.92
Grapes, canned 3.50 - 4.50
Grapes, Concord 2.80 - 3.00
Grapes, Lady Finger 3.51 - 3.58
Grapes, Malaga 3.71 - 3.78
Grapes, Niagara 2.80 - 3.27
Grapes, Ribier 3.70 - 3.80
Grapes, Seedless 2.90 - 3.82
Grapes, Tokyo 3.50 - 3.84
Grapefruit 3.00 - 3.75
Grapefruit, canned 3.08 - 3.32
Grapefruit Juice, canned 2.90 - 3.25
Grass jelly 5.80 - 7.20
Greens, Mixed, chopped 5.05 - 5.22
Greens, Mixed, strained 5.22 - 5.30
Grenadine Syrup 2.31
Guava nectar 5.50
Guava, canned 3.37 - 4. 10
Guava Jelly 3.73
Haddock, Filet, broiled 6.17 - 6.82
Hearts of Palm 5.70
Herring 6.10
Hominy, cooked 6.00 - 7.50
Honey 3.70 - 4.20
Honey Aloe 4.70
Horseradish, freshly ground 5.35
Huckleberries, cooked with sugar 3.38 - 3.43
Jackfruit 4.80 - 6.80
Jam, fruit 3.50 - 4.50
Jellies, fruit 3.00 - 3.50
Jujube 5.20 -
Junket type Dessert:  
Raspberry
6.27
Vanilla
6.49
Kale, cooked 6.36 - 6.80
Ketchup 3.89 - 3.92
Kippered, Herring, Marshall 5.75 - 6.20
Herring, Pickled
4.50 - 5.00
Kelp 6.30
Kumquat, Florida 3.64 - 4.25
Leeks 5.50 - 6.17
Leeks, cooked 5.49 - 6.10
Lemon Juice 2.00 - 2.60
Lentils, cooked 6.30 - 6.83
Lentil Soup 5.80
Lettuce 5.80 - 6.15
Lettuce, Boston 5.89 - 6.05
Lettuce, Iceberg 5.70 - 6.13
Lime Juice 2.00 - 2.35
Lime 2.00 - 2.80
Lobster bisque 6.90 -
Lobster soup 5.70
Lobster, cooked 7.10 - 7.43
Loganberries 2.70 - 3.50
Loquat (May be acidified to pH 3.8) 5.10
Lotus Root 6.90 -
Lychee 4.70 - 5.01
Macaroni, cooked 5.10 - 6.41
Mackerel, King, boiled 6.26 - 6.50
Mackerel, Spanish, broiled 6.07 - 6.36
Mackerel, canned 5.90 - 6.40
Mangoes, ripe 3.40 - 4.80
Mangoes, green 5.80 - 6.00
Mangostine ? 4.50 -5.00
Maple syrup 5.15
Maple syrup, light (Acidified) 4.60
Matzos 5.70
Mayhaw (a variety of strawberry) 3.27 - 3.86
Melba Toast 5.08 - 5.30
Melon, Casaba 5.78 - 6.00
Melons, Honey dew 6.00 - 6.67
Melons, Persian 5.90 - 6.38
Milk, cow 6.40 - 6.80
Milk, Acidophilus 4.09 - 4.25
Milk, condensed 6.33
Milk, evaporated 5.90 - 6.30
Milk, Goat's 6.48
Milk, peptonized 7.10
Milk, Sour, fine curd 4.70 - 5.65
Milkfish 5.30
Mint Jelly 3.01
Molasses 4.90 - 5.40
Muscadine (A variety of grape) 3.20 - 3.40
Mushrooms 6.00 - 6.70
Mushrooms, cooked 6.00 - 6.22
Mushroom Soup, Cream of, canned 5.95 - 6.40
Mussels 6.00 - 6.85
Mustard 3.55 - 6.00
Nata De Coco 5.00
Nectarines 3.92 - 4.18
Noodles, boiled 6.08 - 6.50
Oatmeal, cooked 6.20 - 6.60
Octopus 6.00 - 6.50
Okra, cooked 5.50 - 6.60
Olives, black 6.00 - 7.00
Olives, green, fermented 3.60 - 4.60
Olives, ripe 6.00 -7.50
Onions, pickled 3.70 - 4.60
Onions, red 5.30 - 5.80
Onion white 5.37 - 5.85
Onions, yellow 5.32 - 5.60
Oranges, Florida 3.69 - 4.34
Oranges, Florida "color added" 3.60 - 3.90
Orange Juice, California 3.30 - 4.19
Orange, Juice Florida 3.30 - 4.15
Orange, Marmalade 3.00 - 3.33
Oysters 5.68 - 6.17
Oyster, smoked 6.00
Oyster mushrooms 5.00 - 6.00
Palm, heart of 6.70
Papaya 5.20 - 6.00
Papaya Marmalade 3.53 - 4.00
Parsley 5.70 - 6.00
Parsnip 5.30 - 5.70
Parsnips, cooked 5.45 - 5.65
Pate 5.90
Peaches 3.30 - 4.05
Peaches, canned 3.70 - 4.20
Peaches, cooked with sugar 3.55 - 3.72
Peaches, frozen 3.28 - 3.35
Peanut Butter 6.28
Peanut Soup 7.5
Pears, Bartlett 3.50 - 4.60
Pears, canned 4.00 - 4.07
Pears, Sickle cooked w/sugar 4.04 - 4.21
Pear Nectar 4.03
Peas, canned 5.70 - 6.00
Peas, Chick, Garbanzo 6.48 - 6.80
Peas, cooked 6.22 - 6.88
Peas, dried (split green), cooked 6.45 - 6.80
Peas, dried (split yellow), cooked 6.43 - 6.62
Peas, frozen, cooked 6.40 - 6.70
Peas, pureed 4.90 - 5.85
Pea Soup, Cream of, Canned 5.70
Peas, strained 5.91 - 6.12
Peppers 4.65 - 5.45
Peppers, green 5.20 - 5.93
Persimmons 4.42 - 4.70
Pickles, fresh pack 5.10 - 5.40
Pimiento 4.40 - 4.90
Pimento, canned, acidified 4.40 - 4.60
Pineapple 3.20 - 4.00
Pineapple, canned 3.35 - 4.10
Pineapple Juice, canned 3.30 - 3.60
Plum Nectar 3.45
Plums, Blue 2.80 - 3.40
Plums, Damson 2.90 - 3.10
Plums, Frozen 3.22 - 3.42
Plums, Green Gage 3.60 - 4.30
Plums, Green Gage, canned 3.22 - 3.32
Plums, Red 3.60 - 4.30
Plums, spiced 3.64
Plums, Yellow 3.90 - 4.45
Pollack, filet, broiled 6.72 - 6.82
Pomegranate 2.93 - 3.20
Porgy, broiled 6.40 - 6.49
Pork & Beans, rts. 5.70  
Potatoes 5.40 - 5.90
Mashed
5.10
Prunes, dried, stewed
3.63 - 3.92
Sweet
5.30 - 5.60
Tubers
5.70
Potato Soup 5.90
Prune Juice 3.95 - 3.97
Prune, pureed 3.60 - 4.30
Prune, strained 3.58 - 3.83
Puffed Rice 6.27 - 6.40
Puffed Wheat 5.26 - 5.77
Pumpkin 4.90 - 5.50
Quince, fresh, stewed 3.12 - 3.40
Quince Jelly 3.70
Radishes, red 5.85 - 6.05
Radishes, white 5.52 - 5.69
Raisins, seedless 3.80 - 4.10
Rambutan (Thailand) 4.90
Raspberries 3.22 - 3.95
Raspberries, frozen 3.18 - 3.26
Raspberries, New Jersey 3.50 - 3.82
Raspberry Jam 2.87 - 3.17
Razor Clams 6.20
Razor shell (sea asparagus) 6.00
Rattan, Thailand 5.20 -
Red Ginseng 5.50
Red Pepper Relish 3.10 - 3.62
Rhubarb, California, stewed 3.20 - 3.34
Rhubarb 3.10 - 3.40
Canned
3.40
Rice (all cooked)  
Brown
6.20 - 6.80
Krispies
5.40 - 5.73
White
6.00 - 6.70
Wild
6.00 - 6.50
Rolls, white 5.46 - 5.52
Romaine 5.78 - 6.06
Salmon, fresh, boiled 5.85 - 6.50
Salmon, fresh, broiled 5.36 - 6.40
Salmon, Red Alaska, canned 6.07 - 6.16
Salsa
Sardines 5.70 - 6.60
Sardine, Portuguese, in olive oil 5.42 - 5.93
Satay sauce 5.00
Sauce, Enchilada 5.50 -
Sauce, Fish 4.93 - 5.02
Sauce, Shrimp 7.01 - 7.27
Sauerkraut 3.30 - 3.60
Scallion 6.20 -
Scallop 6.00
Scotch Broth. 5.92
Sea Snail (Top shell) 6.00
Shad Roe, sauted 5.70 - 5.90
Shallots, cooked 5.30 - 5.70
Sherbet, raspberry 3.69
Sherry-wine 3.37
Shredded Ralston 5.32 - 5.60
Shredded Wheat 6.05 - 6.49
Shrimp 6.50 - 7.00
Shrimp Paste 5.00 - 6.77
Smelts, Sauted 6.67 - 6.90
Soda Crackers 5.65 - 7.32
Soup
Broccoli Cheese Suop, condensed
5.60 -
Chicken Broth, rts.
5.80
Corn Soup, condensed
6.80
Cream of celery Saoup, condensed
6.20 -
Cream of Mushroom, condensed
6.00 - 6.20
Cream style corn, condensed
5.70 - 5.80
Cream of Potato soup, condensed
5.80 -
Cream of shrimp soup, condensed
5.80
Minestronen condensed
5.40
New England Clam Chowder,condensed
6.00-
Oyster Stew, condensed
6.30 -
Tomato Rice Soup, condensed
5.50 -
Soy infant formula 6.60 - 7.00
Soy Sauce 4.40 - 5.40
Soy bean curd (tofu) 7.20
Soybean milk 7.00
Spaghetti, cooked 5.97 - 6.40
Spinach 5.50 - 6.80
Spinach, chopped 5.38 - 5.52
Spinach, cooked 6.60 - 7.18
Spinach, frozen, cooked 6.30 - 6.52
Spinach, pureed 5.50 - 6.22
Spinach, strained 5.63 - 5.79
Squash, acorn, cooked 5.18 - 6.49
Squash, Kubbard, cooked 6.00 - 6.20
Squash, white, cooked 5.52 - 5.80
Squash, yellow, cooked 5.79 - 6.00
Squid 6.00 - 6.50
Sturgeon 6.20
Strawberries 3.00 - 3.90
Strawberries, California 3.32 - 3.50
Strawberries, frozen 3.21 - 3.32
Strawberry Jam 3.00 - 3.40
Straw mushroom 4.90
Sweet Potatoes 5.30 - 5.60
Swiss Chard, cooked 6.17 - 6.78
Tamarind 3.00 -
Tangerine 3.32 - 4.48
Taro syrup 4.50
Tea 7.20
Three-Bean Salad 5.40
Tofu (soybean Curd) 7.20
Tomatillo (resembling Cherry tomatoes) 3.83
Tomatoes 4.30 - 4.90
Tomatoes, canned 3.50 - 4.70
Tomatoes, Juice 4.10 - 4.60
Tomatoes, Paste 3.50 - 4.70
Tomatoes, Puree 4.30 - 4.47
Tomatoes, Strained 4.32 - 4.58
Tomatoes, Wine ripened 4.42 - 4.65
Tomato Soup, Cream of, canned 4.62
Trout, Sea, sauted 6.20 - 6.33
Truffle 5.30 - 6.50
Tuna Fish, canned 5.90 - 6.20
Turnips 5.29 - 5.90
Turnip, greens, cooked 5.40 - 6.20
Turnip, white, cooked 5.76 - 5.85
Turnip, yellow, cooked 5.57 - 5.82
Vegetable Juice 3.90 - 4.30
Vegetable soup, canned 5.16
Vegetable soup, chopped 4.98 - 5.02
Vegetable soup, strained 4.99 - 5.00
Vermicelli, cooked 5.80 - 6.50
Vinegar 2.40 - 3.40
Vinegar, cider 3.10
Walnuts, English 5.42
Wax gourd drink 7.20
Water Chestnut 6.00 - 6.20
Watercress 5.88 - 6.18
Watermelon 5.18 - 5.60
Wheat Krispice 4.99 - 5.62
Wheatnena 5.85 - 6.08
Wheaties 5.00 - 5.12
Worcestershire sauce 3.63 - 4.00
Yams, cooked 5.50 - 6.81
Yeast 5.65
Yangsberries, frozen 3.00 - 3.70
Zucchini, cooked 5.69 - 6.10
Zwiebach 4.84 - 4.94

References: This list is from the U.S. FDA and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

  1. Anon. 1962. pH values of food products. Food Eng. 34(3): 98-99.
  2. Bridges, M. A., and Mattice, M.R. 1939. Over two thousand estimations of the pH of representative foods, American J. Digestive Diseases, 9:440-449.
  3. Warren L. Landry and et al. 1995. Examination of canned foods. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Ed. Chapter 21, Table 11, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD 20877
  4. Grahn M.A. 1984. Acidified and low acid foods from Southeast Asia. FDA-LIB
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Food Acidity Summary Chart

Diagram: acid content of common fruits and vegetables