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pH of Fresh Fruits - Master List

pH of Fresh Fruits - Master List

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The pH and/or acidity of a fruit is generally used to determine the safe home canning methods and conditions. The term "pH" is a measure of acidity; the lower its value, the more acid the food. The equipment used for determining pH was generally pH meters.

The approximate ranges of pH values for many common fresh fruits are listed below, in two tables, one for those that are considered to be acidic; another for those that are considered to be low acid.  If a range of values was found in the testing, the range is given. Keep in mind that considerable variation exists between varieties, condition of growing and processing methods, etc. The data presented is applicable to the edible portion of foods in their normal and natural state, unless otherwise designated.

Acidic foods can usually be processed safely in a boiling water canner, usually without added acid (lemon juice, vinegar or citric acid). This is necessary to control botulinum bacteria.  Low-acid canned foods are not acidic enough to prevent the growth of these bacteria. Acid foods contain enough acid to block their growth, or destroy them more rapidly when heated. The acidity level in foods can usually be increased by adding lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar, although this by itself, does not mean the recipe is safe. If either case, following a lab-tested recipe and canning directions is important for both safety and quality!  Canning methods are described on this page. Some liquids, like lemon juice, lime juice and vinegar, are used as acidifiers, to help lower the pH of foods to increase safety. See this page for an explanation.

Canning directions and recipes that are based on this information and tested in a lab are provided here.

In using this table, bear in mind that considerable variation exists between varieties, condition of growing and processing methods, etc. Data is presented for the edible portion of foods in their normal and natural state, unless otherwise designated.  Where the research found a range of values due to variability in the samples, the range is provided.  Where a single consistent value was determined, that value is provided.

If you would like to pH for other food categories, see these links:

 

 

Acidic Fruits

Item Approximate pH Lower range Upper range
Ackees 5.50
Apple, eating 3.65 3.30 4.00
Apples, Golden Delicious 3.60
Apples, Jonathan 3.33
Apples, McIntosh 3.34
Apples, Red Delicious 3.90
Apples, Winesap 3.47
Apricots, fresh 4.05 3.30 4.80
Blackberries, Washington 4.18 3.85 4.50
Blueberries, frozen 3.17 3.11 3.22
Blueberries, Maine 3.23 3.12 3.33
Cherries, black, canned 3.88 3.82 3.93
Cherries, California 4.28 4.01 4.54
Cherries, Maraschino 3.50 3.47 3.52
Cherries, Royal Ann 3.82 3.80 3.83
Dates, Dromedary 4.51 4.14 4.88
Enchalada sauce 4.55 4.40 4.70
Gooseberries 2.95 2.80 3.10
Grapefruit 3.38 3.00 3.75
Grapes, Concord 2.90 2.80 3.00
Grapes, Lady Finger 3.55 3.51 3.58
Grapes, Malaga 3.75 3.71 3.78
Grapes, Niagara 3.04 2.80 3.27
Grapes, Ribier 3.75 3.70 3.80
Grapes, Seedless 3.36 2.90 3.82
Grapes, Tokyo 3.67 3.50 3.84
Kumquat, Florida 3.95 3.64 4.25
Lime Juice 2.18 2.00 2.35
Limes 2.40 2.00 2.80
Loganberries 3.10 2.70 3.50
Mangoes, green / unripe 4.10 3.40 4.80
Mayhaw 3.57 3.27 3.86
Muscadine (A variety of grape) 3.30 3.20 3.40
Nectarines 4.05 3.92 4.18
Orange Juice, California 3.75 3.30 4.19
Orange, Juice Florida 3.73 3.30 4.15
Oranges, Florida 4.02 3.69 4.34
Peaches 3.68 3.30 4.05
Pear Nectar 4.03
Pears, Bartlett 4.05 3.50 4.60
Persimmons 4.56 4.42 4.70
Pineapple 3.60 3.20 4.00
Plums, Blue 3.10 2.80 3.40
Plums, Damson 3.00 2.90 3.10
Plums, Green Gage 3.95 3.60 4.30
Plums, Red 3.95 3.60 4.30
Plums, Yellow 4.18 3.90 4.45
Pomegranate 3.07 2.93 3.20
Raisins, seedless grape raisins 3.95 3.80 4.10
Raspberries 3.59 3.22 3.95
Raspberries, frozen 3.22 3.18 3.26
Raspberries, New Jersey 3.66 3.50 3.82
Rhubarb 3.25 3.10 3.40
Strawberries 3.45 3.00 3.90
Strawberries, California 3.41 3.32 3.50
Strawberries, frozen 3.27 3.21 3.32
Tamarind 3.00
Tangerine 3.90 3.32 4.48
Tomatillo (resembling Cherry tomatoes) 3.83
Tomatoes 4.60 4.30 4.90
Tomatoes, Vine ripened 4.54 4.42 4.65
Yangsberries, frozen 3.35 3.00 3.70

 

Low Acid Fruits

Item Approximate pH Lower range Upper range
Ackees 5.50    
Avocados 6.43 6.27 6.58
Banana, yellow 5.15 5.00 5.29
Bananas 4.85 4.50 5.20
Bananas, red 4.67 4.58 4.75
Cantaloupe 6.36 6.13 6.58
Figs, Calamyrna 5.52 5.05 5.98
Jackfruit 5.80 4.80 6.80
Jujube 5.20    
Loquat (May be acidified to pH 3.8) 5.10    
Lychee 4.86 4.70 5.01
Mangoes, ripe 5.90 5.80 6.00
Mangostine 4.75 4.50 5.00
Melon, Casaba 5.89 5.78 6.00
Melons, Honey dew 6.34 6.00 6.67
Melons, Persian 6.14 5.90 6.38
Olives, ripe 6.75 6.00 7.50
Papaya 5.60 5.20 6.00
Rambutan (Thailand) 4.90    
Watermelon 5.39 5.18 5.60

 

References:

The research upon which our analysis and the resultant table above relies is from FDA and other university institution that have conducted research about the pH of foods.

  1. U.S. FDA and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
  2. Anon. 1962. pH values of food products. Food Eng. 34(3): 98-99.
  3. Bridges, M. A., and Mattice, M.R. 1939. Over two thousand estimations of the pH of representative foods, American J. Digestive Diseases, 9:440-449.
  4. Warren L. Landry and et al. 1995. Examination of canned foods. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Ed. Chapter 21, Table 11, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD 20877
  5. Grahn M.A. 1984. Acidified and low acid foods from Southeast Asia. FDA-LIB

 


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